Wednesday, 29 February 2012

7 wonders of the world with pictures

The Pyramid at Chichén Itzá (before 800 A.D.) Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

Credit: Wikipedia

Credit: Wikipedia
Christ Redeemer (1931) Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

christ redeemer
Credit: Billy Crafton via Flickr
christ redeemer
Credit: bossa67 via Flickr
The Roman Colosseum (70 – 82 A.D.) Rome, Italy

roman colloseum
Credit: nathangibbs via Flickr
roman colloseum
Credit: David Paul Ohmer via Flickr
The Taj Mahal (1630 A.D.) Agra, India

taj mahal
Credit: voobie via Flickr
taj mahal
Credit: konradc via Picasa Web Albums

The Great Wall of China (220 B.C and 1368 – 1644 A.D.) China

great wall of china
Credit: Wikimedia
great wall of china
Credit: DragonWoman via Flickr
Petra (9 B.C. – 40 A.D.), Jordan

Credit: Wikimedia
Credit: Argenberb via Fotopedia
Machu Picchu (1460-1470), Peru

machu picchu
Credit: slack12 via Flickr
machu picchu
Credit: matito via Flickr

what is mac os x?

This document attempts to give an answer to the question "What is Mac OS X?". My original motivation in writing this was that somebody had proxy-volunteered me to give a talk introducing Mac OS X to the Linux Users Group at my work place. While thinking over what to say to those folks, most (if not all) of whom are strangers to Mac OS X, I decided to write a supplementary document that they could refer to at their leisure.
Since I moved to Mac OS X, I have had a few discussions with people who are curious about Apple and Mac OS X, but have not used the platform. Often, what they think is a somewhat distorted, perhaps even incorrect version of the "truth": there are many areas in which they think the Mac is worse or better than it really is. Consider (with colloquialisms preserved):
  • Macs are good only for graphics/media work.
  • Macs suck for hackers.
  • There is very little software for the Mac.
  • Macs are overpriced/not worth the price.
  • Mac OS X is Unix.
  • Mac OS X is not Unix.
  • Mac OS X rocks. Linux is crap.
  • Mac OS X is crap. Linux rocks.

Monday, 27 February 2012

short cut keys for ubantu

Column1 Column2
Alt + F1 Open the Applications menu
Alt + F2 Run an application by typing its name in the box which appears
Prt Sc (Print Screen) Take a screenshot of the whole screen
Alt + Prt Sc Take a screenshot of the current window
Ctrl + Alt + Left/Right Cursor Spins the ‘cube’ that your workspaces reside on, allowing you to select the workspace you wish to use.
Ctrl + Alt + Up Cursor Enables an ‘expose’ like feature that presents you with all the windows you currently have open, allowing you to select the one you wish to give focus to.
Ctrl + Alt + Down Cursor Unfolds your workspace cube allowing you to see more than one of your workspaces at once, using the left and right cursor keys with this active will allow you to select the workspace you wish to use.
Ctrl + C Copy the selected text/object
Ctrl + X Cut the selected text/object
Ctrl + V Paste/insert the selected text/object
Ctrl + A Select all text
Ctrl + B Make the selected text bold
Ctrl + I Make the selected text italic
Ctrl + U Underline the selected text
Ctrl + N Open a new document or window
Ctrl + S Save the current document
Ctrl + O Open another document
Ctrl + P Print the current document
Ctrl + Z Undo the last change you made
Ctrl + Shift + Z Redo a change that you just undid
Ctrl + Alt + Delete Restart the computer immediately, without saving open files
Ctrl + Alt + Plus (numeric keypad) Rotate through supported screen resolutions
Ctrl + Alt + Minus (numeric keypad) Rotate backwards through supported screen resolutions
Ctrl + T Open a new tab
Ctrl + Tab Rotate through each tab
Ctrl + Shift + Tab Rotate backwards through each tab
Ctrl + W Close the current tab (or browser if on last tab)
Ctrl + L Enter a new web address
Ctrl + B Show a list of your bookmarks
Ctrl + H Show your browsing history
Ctrl + K Enter a new web search in the search bar
Ctrl + Y Show a list of downloaded files
F11 Display the current page full-screen
Esc Stop loading the current page
Ctrl + R Reload the current page
F7 Check the spelling of the current document
Ctrl + F Find and replace words
Ctrl + Z Undo the last change
Ctrl + Y Redo a change which you just undid
Ctrl + L Align the current paragraph/selection to the left
Ctrl + E Align the current paragraph/selection to the center of the document
Ctrl + R Align the current paragraph/selection to the right
Ctrl + Shift + J Show the current document full-screen
Ctrl + A Select all
Ctrl + C Copy the highlighted content to clipboard
Ctrl + V Paste the clipboard content
Ctrl + N New (Create a new document, not in terminal)
Ctrl + O Open a document
Ctrl + S Save the current document
Ctrl + P Print the current document
Ctrl + W Close the close document
Ctrl + Q Quit the current application
Ctrl + Alt + F1 Switch to the first virtual terminal
Ctrl + Alt + F2(F3)(F4)(F5)(F6) Select the different virtual terminals
Ctrl + Alt + F7 Restore back to the current terminal session with X
Ctrl + Alt + Backspace Restart GNOME
Alt + Tab Switch between open programs
Ctrl + Alt + L Lock the screen.
Alt + F1 opens the Applications menu
Alt + F2 opens the Run Application dialog box.
Alt + F3 opens the Deskbar Applet
Alt + F4 closes the current window.
Alt + F5 unmaximizes the current window.
Alt + F7 move the current window
Alt + F8 resizes the current window.
Alt + F9 minimizes the current window.
Alt + F10 maximizes the current window.
Alt + Space opens the window menu.
Ctrl + Alt + + Switch to next X resolution
Ctrl + Alt + - Switch to previous X resolution
Ctrl + Alt + Left/Right move to the next/previous workspace
Ctrl + A Move cursor to beginning of line
Ctrl + E Move cursor to end of line
Ctrl + C kills the current process.
Ctrl + Z sends the current process to the background.
Ctrl + D logs you out.
Ctrl + R finds the last command matching the entered letters.
Enter a letter, followed by Tab + Tab lists the available commands beginning with those letters.
Ctrl + U deletes the current line.
Ctrl + K deletes the command from the cursor right.
Ctrl + W deletes the word before the cursor.
Ctrl + L clears the terminal output
Shift + Ctrl + C copy the highlighted command to the clipboard.
Shift + Ctrl + V (or Shift + Insert) pastes the contents of the clipboard.
Alt + F moves forward one word.
Alt + B moves backward one word.
Arrow Up/Down browse command history
Shift + PageUp / PageDown Scroll terminal output
Alt + Tab switch between open windows
Win + Tab switch between open windows with Shift Switcher or Ring Switcher effect
Win + E Expo, show all workspace
Ctrl + Alt + Down Film Effect
Ctrl + Alt + Left mouse button Rotate Desktop Cube
Alt + Shift + Up Scale Windows
Ctrl + Alt + D Show Desktop
Win + Left mouse button take screenshot on selected area
Win + Mousewheel Zoom In/Out
Alt + Mousewheel Transparent Window
Alt + F8 Resize Window
Alt + F7 Move Window
Win + P Add Helper
F9 show widget layer
Shift + F9 show water effects
Win + Shift + Left mouse button Fire Effects
Win + Shift + C Clear Fire Effects
Win + Left mouse button Annotate: Draw
Win + 1 Start annotation
Win + 3 End annotation
Win + S selects windows for grouping
Win + T Group Windows together
Win + U Ungroup Windows
Win + Left/Right Flip Windows
Shift + Ctrl + N Create New Folder
Ctrl + T Delete selected file(s) to trash
Alt + ENTER Show File/Folder Properties
Ctrl + 1 Toggle View As Icons
Ctrl + 2 Toggle View As List
Shift + Right Open Directory (Only in List View)
Shift + Left Close Directory (Only in List View)
Ctrl + S Select Pattern
F2 Rename File
Ctrl + A Select all files and folders
Ctrl + W Close Window
Ctrl + Shift + W Close All Nautilus Windows
Ctrl + R Reload Nautilus Window
Alt + Up Open parent directory
Alt + Left Back
Alt + Right Forward
Alt + Home go to Home folder
Ctrl + L go to location bar
F9 Show sidepane
Ctrl + H Show Hidden Files
Ctrl + + Zoom In
Ctrl + - Zoom Out
Ctrl + 0 Normal Size

how to repair smps?

I have been struggling with my desktop for getting started since it won’t start at all and I need several times switch on and so. Occasionally it starts sometimes or else have to use my laptop. When I opened my ATX cabinet and then I opened for SMPS too. In this SMPS I found some problems. The main capacitor was leaked and bulged too. This means the capacitor has dead. At the other side fan has been glitch and it is unable to spin by hand as well. I used Philips Oil base spray by removing the sticker of the fan and then rubber washer.

I replaced another new capacitor and even the fan was revolving with the help of Philips oil spray. Tested the voltages with digital multimeter and everything was fine.
If your fan is unable to spin even after the oil spraying get a new fan that might help you better, but repairing will save a little money. In this days SMPS and Fans are cheaper and our time is too waste for repairing, but we can do when we are free. Every day we need to learn a lesson and have to spend the day.
Here are some hints For failing the power supply.
The SMPS always gets a lot of heat and if the fan is too not working, then probably it will also stop other things in SMPSs and the Mosfet diodes which are attached to heat sinks they will stop flowing correct volts. Since this Fan helps the circuit to cool from the heat sinks.

advanced wireless communication

Rapid Progress in Wireless Communication Technology Drives WiMAX
Phenomenal growth in the wireless communications market is spurring uptake of wireless interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX)-based products. In fact, WiMAX is likely to become the third most widely used high-speed Internet access technology after digital subscriber line (DSL) and cable modems, which are its key competitors. WiMAX’s rising popularity can be attributed to the incorporation of specifications and standards that boost end-user confidence. In addition, WiMAX’s success in mass markets coupled with the increase in the number of technology providers is likely to make WiMAX more accessible and affordable. It also provides the much-needed capital for further investments in research and development for the continued advancement of the technology.

This research analyzes promising areas of next-generation wireless communications technologies and focuses on the future size and structure of the industry. The study also evaluates key technology drivers and the challenges facing WiMAX technology. Participants can identify potential collaborators, stay ahead of the competition, and keep abreast with critical developments.

Mobile Communications Proving to be Key Area of Growth for WiMAX

Mobile communications such as broadband wireless access is a strong driver for WiMAX. Service providers have already deployed 3G or 4G cellular services for access to advanced voice, video, multimedia, and broadband data services. 'WiMAX is standards-based - making it more affordable and competitive in the mass market,' says the analyst of this research service. 'As most mobile broadband users employ 3G or wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) subscriber units, a gradual movement to voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) on WiMAX technology can also be expected.'

WiMAX is likely to find greater acceptance in data communications. Notebook computers and personal digital assistants (PDAs) are likely to incorporate the technology. Hybrid Wi-Fi and WiMAX with user access through Wi-Fi and backhaul by means of WiMAX is another emerging trend.

WiMAX holds Untapped Revenue Potential in Underserved Areas

Growing competition and product maturity in the broadband access domain compels suppliers to seek growth opportunities for WiMAX in underserved areas to create new customer bases and increase market share. 'The prime customers for WiMAX are likely to be rural and outlying areas where the cable and DSL infrastructure is limited,' says the analyst. The WiMAX standard supports mesh topology and smart antenna technologies that increase coverage and throughput especially in extreme environments.

In such cases, the wireless Internet service providers (WISPs) work in tandem with local utilities and governments to deliver voice services in addition to high-speed data. As prices equalize, WiMAX can look towards upstaging DSL - particularly in Asia and Eastern Europe.

Sunday, 26 February 2012

engineering artificial application

A journal of IFAC, the International Federation of Automatic Control

Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques are now being used by the practising engineer to solve a whole range of hitherto intractable problems. This journal provides an international forum for rapid publication of work describing the practical application of AI methods in all branches of engineering.
Focal points of the journal are:
• Applications of real-time intelligent automation, and their associated supporting methodologies and techniques.
• Architectures, algorithms and techniques for distributed AI systems.
• Decision-support systems.
• Aspects of reasoning: abductive, case-based, model-based, non-monotonic, incomplete, progressive and approximate reasoning.
• Other theoretical aspects, e.g. chaos theory and fractals.
• Knowledge processing, e.g. a priori and self-learning, knowledge elicitation and acquisition, knowledge representation, knowledge compaction, knowledge bases, expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems and genetic algorithms.
• Perception, e.g. image and signal processing, pattern recognition, vision systems, tactile systems, and speech recognition and synthesis.
• Aspects of software engineering, e.g. intelligent programming environments, the testing verification and validation of AI-based software, software and hardware architectures for the real-time use of AI techniques, safety and reliability.
• Fault detection, fault analysis and diagnostics.
• Industrial experiences in the application of the above techniques, e.g. case studies or bench-marking exercises.
Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence publishes
• Survey papers/tutorials.
• Contributed papers—detailed expositions of new research or applications.
• Brief papers—short discussions of new technical concepts or developments, or new applications of existing techniques.
• Case studies or software reviews—evaluative and descriptive reviews of existing available AI software systems, discussing the experience gained and lessons learnt from using or developing AI systems for engineering applications.IFAC EAAI Forum—problems arising from engineering practice, needing to be solved by somebody; solutions to problems discussed in this forum or elsewhere; critiques of a position or claim found in the literature.

Saturday, 25 February 2012

list of upcoming bollywood movies in march.

Release Date       Film                      Star                      Director       Genre
Mar 2 diary of butterfly Udita Goswami, Rajiv Singh, Sofia Hayat, Aryan Vaid Vinod Mukhi Thriller
Mar 2 london,paris,new york Ali Zafar, Aditi Rao Hydari Anu Menon Romance, Comedy
Mar 2 paan sing thomer Irrfan Khan, Mahie Gill Tigmanshu Dhulia Crime
Mar 2 will you marry me? Rajeev Khandelwal, Shreyas Talpade, Celina Jaitly, Mugdha Godse Aditya Datt Romance, Comedy
Mar 9 chaar din ki chandani Tusshar Kapoor, Kulraj Randhawa, Anupam Kher, Om Puri Samir Karnik Romance
Mar 9 kahaani Vidya Balan Sujoy Ghosh Thriller, Drama
Mar 16 5 Ghantey Mein 5 Crore Meera, Abhishek Kumar, Shawar Ali, Rashid Khan Faisal Saif Horror
Mar 16 Say Yes To Love Aasad Mirza, Nazia Hussain Marukh Mirza Beig Romance
Mar 23 agent vinod Saif Ali Khan, Kareena Kapoor Sriram Raghavan Suspense
Mar 30 blood mony Kunal Khemu, Amrita Puri Vishal Mahadkar Thriller
Mar 30 bumboo Kavin Dave, Sharat Saxena, Sanjay Mishra, Sudhir Pandey Jagdish Rajpurohit Comedy

saif ali khan slaped businessmen publicity stunt or real?

saif ali khan was arrested and then released on bail, after a brawl that took place outside a five-star hotel in Mumbai.
Here is what happened, according to a statement by Iqbal Sharma, who was allegedly assaulted by Saif.
  • Saif Ali Khan along with his girlfriend kareena kooper her sister Karishma Kapoor, Amrita Arora and her husband Shakeel Ladak, Bilal Amrohi and Malaika Arora Khan were seated adjacent to Iqbal Sharma’s table.

  • Says Iqbal “They were making a lot of noise and I asked the management to request them to tone it down. This happened thrice but there was no change in their behaviour. Finally at around 12:30 am we decided to leave. As we were going down the stairs, Saif was coming up, probably from the toilet. As he passed me, he called me an idiot and asked ‘do you know who I am?’”
  • The two later exchanged a few words, which is when Saif turned around to punch Iqbal, even as the two other men (Shakeel Ladak and Bilal Amrohi) pushed his 69 year old father-in-law.
  • Sharma then went to the GT Hospital, where doctors informed him that he had fractured his nasal bone. He then lodged an FIR complaint at the Colaba Police Station in Mumbai
  • Saif Ali Khan along with Shakeel Ladak and Bilal Amrohi were arrested at 7:30 PM and an hour later released on bail.
Saif on the other hand, denied the charges. In his official statement, the actor says
There was an ugly incident last night where my friends and the ladies with us were abused and I was assaulted.I was hit and I defended myself. I have been to the police station to answer the requirements of law as I am a law abiding citizen. I have also filed a complaint about what happened last night and I am confident justice will be done.
I have seen the interviews given on TV and they look like decent people and I cannot believe that the same people were so aggressive the night before and the lies that they are saying about me with such straight faces.
I think they have the CCTV footage in the restaurant that will prove everything.
I hope the media is able to remain impartial while the matter is being decided. I don’t think any gentleman would have behaved differently
What do you think of the entire incident? Tell us in the comments section below.

you wan't to know who used your pc in your absence?

Want to know Who Used Your Pc In Your Absence & what Did He Do?

just follow these simple steps

start > run >eventvwr.msc

Events are stored in three log files: Application, Security, and System.

These logs can be reviewed and archived.

For our purposes we want the System log. Click on "System" in the left-hand column for a list of events.

Look for a date and time when you weren't home and your computer should have been off.

double click on the eg: info n it will show u the detail.

You can also use this log to see how long someone was on the computer.

Just look at the time the computer was turned on and off for that day.

lock your word file

We all use Microsoft Word to create documents.
and some times we dont want other people to access our documents
specially when you are on a shared computer in your company and you may have your certain secret data stored in your word document that should not be accessed by your boss or other employee’s.

To deal with such a situation Microsoft word 2007 integrated a security feature in Microsoft word so that you can password protect your files.

just follow these simple steps to make your document protected

Click on the Microsoft Office Button present on the top left corner of the window.
Now Click on the Save As option
Now a new window will pop up.
Click on Tools option at the bottom of the window.
Now you will have two options.
You can select either one or both options
One is Password To Open it will ask for the password every time the document is opened.
So to view the document you have to enter the password first.
Second is Password To Modify it will ask for the password every time somebody tries to modify the document.

history of microsoft

Microsoft was formed by a Harvard College Dropout called Bill Gates. Bill Gates was born William Henry Gates III on October 28, 1955. He was born to a family that was successful in business, living a comfortable upper middle class life in Seattle, Washington.
Early in his elementary school days, Bill Gates quickly shot to the head of the class, consistently outscoring his peers in most subjects, but especially math and science. His parents soon enrolled him in Lakeside Prep School, where the atmosphere was intellectual enough to stimulate the young Gates. This move to Lakeside would prove historic, for it was here, in the spring of 1968, that he was introduced to computers.
At that time, computers were still too large and expensive for the school to purchase one of its own. Over the next ten months or so, the school struck agreements with various corporations who allowed the students to use their computers. Bill Gates, his buddy Paul Allen and a handful of others quickly took to computing. In fact, they began to skip classes, opting instead to stay in the computer room and write programs, read computer books and find out exactly how these machines worked. They soon learned to hack the system, and altered and crashed valuable files until they were banned from the computer. Soon, however, Bill and his friends were actually hired by the computer company to find bugs and explore weaknesses in the system, which kept causing the computers to crash. Instead of paying the boys for their time, they were granted something even better--unlimited computer time.
Gates has been quoted as saying that that was the time when he got into computers fulltime. "I mean, then I became hardcore. It was day and night," he said. The boys used their time eating, drinking and breathing computers. They studied manuals, explored the system, and hounded the employees with questions until they had formed a base of knowledge that would eventually lead to the formation of Microsoft.
The computer company that was hiring the group went out of business in 1970, and the boys had to find alternate sources for computer time. They were soon hired by Information Sciences Inc. to write a program for payroll. This time they actually earned money as well as enjoying the unlimited computer time. It was during this time that the group gained notoriety for their skill in computer programming. They were hired or contracted by various organizations to find bugs and fix them. Each job helped Gates and his friends learn their skill and delve ever deeper into the world of programming.
In the fall of 1973, Gates left for Harvard University. He enrolled as a prelaw student, but spent most of his time in the campus computer center, programming away. He stayed in touch with Paul Allen and they continued to talk about future projects and the possibility of one day having their very own business. Allen even moved to Boston to be closer to Gates, so they could continue working on projects. Allen continually urged Gates to quit school and work with him full-time, and Gates was unsure of what he wanted to do. This was soon to change.
One year later, Paul Allen saw the first microcomputer on the cover of a magazine. He bought the magazine and went immediately to show it to Gates. They realized the time was right. The home PC business was about to explode and someone would need to provide software for the machines. By stretching the truth somewhat, Gates arranged for a meeting with the Altair manufacturers. He had called them to let them know he had a program written for them. After the appointment was made, Gates and Allen stayed up for nights, feverishly writing the program he had promised. It worked perfectly at the meeting, and everyone was impressed. They sold the program, and saw that this was something they could do for real. Within a year, Gates had dropped out of Harvard and Microsoft was formed.
The company went through some rough first years, but eventually were able to license MS-DOS to IBM. The IBM PC took the public by storm, and its success signaled the success of Microsoft. Microsoft continued writing software, for businesses as well as the consumer market. In 1986, the company went public, and Gates became a 31-year old billionaire. The next year, the first version of windows was introduced, and by 1993 a million copies per month were being sold.
In 1995, Gates knew that the Internet was the next area of focus, and the course of Microsoft shifted dramatically. The popular Internet Explorer browser soon became a bestseller. Today, Microsoft software is everywhere.

what is stock market?

what is stock marketA stock market which is also known as equity market is a public body in which a free network of economic transactions occurs. It is not a physical facility or secret body. It is the place for the trading of stock or shares of company and its derivatives at an agreeable price. These shares and derivatives are securities that are listed on a stock exchange.

It was estimated that the world’s stock market size was at around $36.6 trillion at the beginning of October 2008. The entire market of world derivative has been estimated at around $791 trillion face or nominal value which is eleven-fold of the total world economy. Since the value of derivative market is presented in terms of notional values, it cannot be straightly compared to a fixed income security or a stock, which conventionally refers t an actual value. Furthermore, the large majority of derivatives cancels each other out which means that a derivative bet on an event that occurs is counteracted by a comparable derivative bet on an event that does not occur. Many of the securities that are relatively not liquid like that are valued as marked to model, instead of valued as an actual market price.
The stocks are traded and listed on stock exchanges which are body of a company or mutual organization that is specialized in getting buyers and sellers of the organizations to a list of securities and stocks together. Categorized by market capitalization, the biggest stock market in the US is the new york stock exchange while in Canada, it is the Toronto Stock Exchange. Examples of leading European stock exchanges comprise London Stock Exchange, Amsterdam Stock Exchange, Paris Bourse, and Frankfurt Stock Exchange (Deutsche Börse). In Africa, there are JSE Limited and Nigerian Stock Exchange. In Asia, there are the Tokyo Stock Exchange, Singapore Exchange, the Shanghai Stock Exchange, the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, and the Bombay Stock Exchange. In Latin America, the examples include the BMV and the BM&F Bovespa.
The participants in London Stock Exchange vary from individual investors to big traders or also known as hedge fund traders, and they can be based anywhere. In the end, their orders are generally handled by professionals at a stock exchange, who will perform the order of buying or selling.
Some of the exchanges have physical locations in which transactions are performed on a trading floor, by a method that is popular as open outcry. This auction type is used in commodity exchanges and stock exchanges in which traders can enter ‘oral’ bids and offers at the same time. The other stock exchange type is the virtual type which is composed of a computer network where trades are executed electronically.
A stock exchange is established to facilitate the securities exchange between buyers and sellers and these activities provide a marketplace whether it is virtual or physical. The actual trades are on the basis of an auction market model in which a buyer bids a certain price for a stock and a seller asks a certain price for the stock. If the bid and ask prices meet, then a trade takes place. If there are more than one bidder and asker, they are served on a basis of first come first served at a certain price.
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